Free «Design Approaches» Essay Sample

Design Approaches

Process Design Matrix-Executive Summary

This executive summary highlights specific design approaches that can be useful for McDonald’s service delivery and the Toyota production process. In service delivery, the main approaches include the production line approach, personal attention approach, and self-service approach (Jacobs & Chase, 2014). Some of the approaches proposed in the design matrix are already being practiced by the two companies but others can be adopted to enhance productivity. This information is vital for the management, since it provides a basis for decision-making.

Production Line Approach

The given approach utilizes a philosophy, which can overcome most inherent problems during the service provision. In this case, service implies subordination of the server to the individual being served, while manufacturing focuses on items rather than individuals; hence, avoiding this connotation (Jacobs & Chase, 2014). In McDonald’s, the process of service delivery is considered to be connected with the manufacturing one. Following this approach, the company will emphasize on installing one large grill, where only one individual cooks the burgers, the preparation station where the burgers are dressed, a frying place where one individual would prepare the French fries, and a counter where orders are placed by the customers.

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The Self-Service Approach

The purpose of the given approach is to allow the customer to participate greatly in the process of production as a way of enhancing the service provision (Jacobs & Chase, 2014). Consequently, during this process, the company can save much money enhancing profitability. In the McDonald’s restaurants, there is a possibility for customers to use an information system that has a touch screen computer and make orders themselves. This method allows the clients to customize the order based on their preferences. At the same time, it eliminates the need for an individual to wait at the counter to receive orders.

Personal Attention Approach

This approach is based on the concept of relationship building. The goal here can be achieved by connecting with the customers through such activities as sending Christmas cards to the customers. Such personal contact enhances the relationship of the company with the customers. McDonald’s can adopt such approach, which can even involve sending a birthday message to their customers, to enhance their service provision. In product design matrix, the arrangement format of a facility is defined by its workflow. These structures include project, manufacturing cell, work centre, continuous process, and assembly line (Jacobs & Chase, 2014).

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The Job Shop Approach

In the job shop approach, the objective is to have all the functions or equipment accumulated in one group. In a machine shop, the objective would be to make parts for local companies. The Toyota Company uses this approach. Based on their wide range of machine shops with car products, one line can specialize in manufacturing an individual product, such as building the car’s hoods, while the other lines can specialize in assembling the cars.

The Assembly Line Approach

In this process, the assembly line follows a systematic protocol. It ensures the existence of a constant and similar process on the assembly line. This kind of production approach is already adopted by the Toyota Company. In the production line, each worker is assigned with a specific task to focus on. For example, there can be a station specialized in tyre installation, while another one can specialize in paint spraying or electrical installations. When one station finishes its task, the product is moved to the next station to be worked on until it reaches the last stage on the assembly line.

The Continuous Process Approach

The current production approach foresees that the final products have connection to the notion of the assembly line but the production flow is compared to a continuous flow of a liquid (Jacobs & Chase, 2014). This process is commonly applied in the oil refineries and chemical production companies. Such type of production is usually a 24 hours operational process with workers having shifts along the production hours. The adoption of such approach in the Toyota production process is difficult but can enhance performance, if it is implemented.

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Difference between Service Process and Manufacturing Process

The process of manufacturing focuses on the sequential steps that are involved in it. The process begins with a set of specifications, which are initiated by the manufacturer and are put through production and testing. The process ends with the product delivery to the customer. On the other hand, service process gains value when the customer interacts with it and its value is based on the customer’s experience with the process. In this case, the service itself is the product.

In addition, the goods offered by manufacturing are tangible, while the ones proposed by the services delivery are not. Moreover, service processes lack inventory services, while the manufacturing process keeps an inventory. Moreover, the service process depends on the customer, while the manufacturing process is independent of the customer’s needs. A manufacturing process can also be automated easily, while it is difficult to automate the service process labor. Finally, service firms do not need a physical location to operate, while a manufacturing process requires such location. An example of a service process is consultancy, while the manufacturing process can be represented by vehicles manufacturing.

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In my work place, in a bakery, the manufacturing process is done in the company’s main building. The baked products are prepared in the ovens and a series of other processes, such as packing, are done to prepare them. After the manufacturing process, the packed goods are transported to the distribution outlet to be supplied to the customers. In the distribution outlet, the service process is practiced. The orders are received and the products are delivered to the customers. Such activity represents a delivery service, which is the major process done in the distribution outlet.